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Section : School

Title : The Relationship Between Verbal Skills and Educational Attainment in the Primary School Years

Authors : Peter Lloyd, Ian Peers and Katerina Antonopoulou

Abstract : [taken from "Conclusion"]: Scores on a test of communication skills that puts a premium on autonomous processing were significantly correlated with children's educational attainment as rated by teachers. Results did not support the idea that message production and appraisal are particularly related to literacy since all educational categories were equally correlated. A smaller study using standardised measures of English and Maths demonstrated a similar correlation. The pattern of the relationship as a function of age suggests that the cognitive components that are common to performance in the classroom are also present in the pragmatic skills involved in referential communication.

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Section : School

Title : Is there a Developmental Pathway, in Children of Infant-School Age, in the Use of Memory Codes in Serial Recall of a Series of Line Drawings?

Author : Sue Palmer

Abstract : [taken from "Aim"]: My aim in this study was to investigate whether there is an interim developmental period during which children use both visual and verbal mnemonic codes to represent sequences of line drawings, rather than there being an abrupt developmental transition from the use of a visual code to a verbal code.

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Section : School

Title : The Relationship Between Verbal Skills and Educational Attainment in the Primary School Years

Authors : Peter Lloyd, Ian Peers and Katerina Antonopoulou

Abstract : [taken from "Conclusion"]: Scores on a test of communication skills that puts a premium on autonomous processing were significantly correlated with children's educational attainment as rated by teachers. Results did not support the idea that message production and appraisal are particularly related to literacy since all educational categories were equally correlated. A smaller study using standardised measures of English and Maths demonstrated a similar correlation. The pattern of the relationship as a function of age suggests that the cognitive components that are common to performance in the classroom are also present in the pragmatic skills involved in referential communication.

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Section : Counseling

Title : Tales of Mental Health Counseling

Author : Jeffrey T. Guterman

Abstract : [ none available] A version of this article was published in the October 1996 issue of the Journal of Mental Health Counseling

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Section : Counseling

Title : Counseling in the Postmodern Era

Author : Jeffrey T. Guterman

Abstract : Symposium addressing critical issues facing counselors in the postmodern era. Building on a published debate in the Journal of Mental Health Counseling (JMHC), leaders in the field offer their perspectives about postmodernism and counseling. Presenters include Albert Ellis, Michael D'Andrea, Sandra A. Rigazio-DiGilio, Jeffrey T. Guterman, and many others. Topics include theory selection, the nature of the client-counselor relationship, the role of diagnosis, multicultural issues, managed care, and the impact of counselors' values during the change process. Similar to how we strive to embrace the diversity of our clients, this program is designed to encourage the appreciation of diverging perspectives among counselors and the bonus that can be attained by sharing these different viewpoints.

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Section : Teaching

Title : Applying Social Psychology to Reveal a Major (But Correctable) Flaw in Student Evaluations of Teaching

Author : Anthony G. Greenwald

Abstract : Higher education relies on student ratings to evaluate faculty teaching, partly because the alternatives (expert peer appraisals or objective performance criteria) are costly or unavailable. Because student ratings are crucial not only to improving instruction, but also in making or breaking faculty careers, it is important to assure that they provide valid indications of instructional quality. Analyses of large data sets obtained at University of Washington show that student ratings are prone to artifacts that can produce occasional substantial underestimates of teaching ability for instructors who grade strictly (and overestimates for those who grade leniently). Some likely system impacts of this distortion of ratings are to nudge (a) instructors toward lenient grading, and (b) students toward nonchallenging courses. The bright side of this picture is that the usefulness of student ratings can be improved statistically.

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Section : Gestalt

Title : Gestalt Psychology and Gestalt Therapy

Author : Mary Henle

Abstract : The purpose of this paper is to try to set the historical record straight while the history in question is still in the making. lt seeks to clarify the relations between gestalt therapy and Gestalt psychology, from which the therapy claims to derive. In considering gestalt therapy, I will confine myself to the work of Fritz Perls, the finder, as he calls himself, of this therapy (Perls 1969/1971:16), with emphasis on his later books.

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Section : Existential Psychology

Title : Existential Psychology, Logotherapy & the Will to Meaning

Author : Diana Teresa de Avila

Abstract : The existentialist movement has drawn its attention back to questions that have been readily pushed aside by those whose psychological horizons have been confined within the constructs imposed by prevailing philosophies of science and experimental design. The problem of humanistic freedom of choice, the problem of the self as "knower" and integrator as against the self as object, the problem of the differentiating effect upon human behavior of the person's unique knowledge of the inevitability of death, are not matters with which psychologists have qualified themselves (Woodworth & Sheehan, 1964). Existential Psychotherapy has its underpinnings in philosophical thought. In writing this paper, I will explore some of the basic philosophical constructs that lay the essential groundwork for this approach. Existentialism, unlike many other psychotherapies, does not offer a cut and dry technique or a methodology as a therapeutic modality, but rather is better depicted as a lens in which the therapist can view the client and the world in which the client exists.

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Section : New Measures

Title : Cardiac Coherence: A New Noninvasive Measure of Autonomic Nervous System Order

Authors : William A. Tiller Ph.D, Rollin McCraty MA and Mike Atkinson

Abstract : Although cardiac sympathovagal regulation has been studied during stress using power spectral density analysis of heart rate variability, little is known about its regulation during emotional states. Using heart rate variability measurements we studied autonomic balance in 20 subjects trained in a mental and emotional self-management technique called Freeze-Frame. The study was conducted in two environments; under controlled laboratory conditions, and at work under real-life stressful conditions in the workplace. Power spectral density plots of R-R intervals obtained from electrocardiogram recordings were divided into three regions: low frequency, (predominantly sympathetic activity), mid-frequency, and high frequency, (parasympathetic activity). Measurements were taken for a 5-minute baseline period followed by a 5-minute period of positive emotional expression. Three unique conditions of autonomic nervous system order can be clearly discriminated in the data, (1) normal heart function mode, 2) entrainment mode and 3) internal coherence mode. The internal coherence mode is new to the electrophysiology literature. We provide supporting data for modes 2 and 3 and show that a group of 20 subjects trained in this technique can enter and maintain these states at will. We found that, when one is in the entrainment mode, other physiological systems lock to the entrainment frequency which is approximately 0.1 Hz. The results suggest that emotional experiences play a role in determining sympathovagal balance independent of heart rate and respiration and further suggest that positive emotions lead to alterations in heart rate variability that may be beneficial in the treatment of hypertension and reduce the likelihood of sudden death in patients with congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease.

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Section : Software System

Title : A Software System for Analysis of Steady-State Evoked Potentials

Author : Matthew Belmonte

Abstract : A suite of computer programs tailored to the analysis of steady-state evoked potential data in attentional shifting experiments is described. Stimuli are sequenced pseudorandomly while maintaining constraints on overlapping of response windows. Averages of phase-locked and non-phase-locked steady-state amplitudes are computed in variable-length epochs and corrected for the effect of sampling noise. Various algebraic and combinational transformations of averaged data are implemented. Several parametric and nonparametric statistical tests are implemented, and the results of these procedures are visualised. An application of this software has revealed modulation of a steady-state visual evoked potential by spatial attention. The software has been designed with portability in mind, and many of the programs are applicable to more general problems in evoked potentials. Descriptors: EEG, Steady-State Evoked Potential, Software.

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Section : Sexual Orientation

Title : Exotic Becomes Erotic: Explaining the Enigma of Sexual Orientation

Author : Daryl J. Bem

Abstract : In this address, I outline my "Exotic-Becomes-Erotic" theory of sexual orientation (Bem, 1996), which provides the same basic account for both opposite-sex and same-sex erotic desire--and for both men and women. It proposes that biological variables do not code for sexual orientation per se but for childhood temperaments that influence a child's preferences for sex-typical or sex-atypical activities. These preferences lead children to feel different from opposite-sex or same-sex peers--to perceive them as "exotic." This, in turn, produces heightened physiological arousal that subsequently gets eroticized to that same class of peers: Exotic becomes erotic. The theory claims to accommodate both the empirical evidence of the biological essentialists and the cultural relativism of the social constructionists. I also discuss sex differences in sexual orientation and the political implications of trying to explain homosexuality.

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